Gas exchange and breathing simulator

Select a parameter preset: and modify it (if necessary), or enter your parameters directly here:

Inspiratory O2-fraction (FiO2) %
Respiratory rate (RR) min-1
Tidal volume (VT) ml
Dead space (VD) ml
Respiratory exchange ratio (RQ)
Hemoglobin concentration g/100ml
Body temperature °C
O2-consumption (V̇O2) mmol/min
O2-extraction rate (ER) % (=Ratio of O2-consumption to O2-delivery by the blood to all tissues)
Ambient air pressure [mmHg] or [bar] resp. Altitude above sea level [m]
The following 2 parameters are almost only relevant to pathophysiology:
Right ⇒ left shunt %
Base excess (BE) mmol/l

Take this simulator for a trip to the operating room, ICU, or dive 50 meters (~ 6 bar ~ 6 ATA). Or do you care how much fat and carbohydrates you burn through increased oxygen consumption (in physical labor), i. E. translate into kinetic work and heat? Of course, you'll need to increase your respiratory rate and tidal volume to maintain normal arterial CO2 partial pressure. But perhaps you want to feel your bodily fluids boil in the stratosphere or actually simulate malignant hyperthermia with extremely high oxygen consumption at a remarkably high body temperature? With some background knowledge certainly the extreme sports enthusiasts benefit as well. So it may interest you like altitude training, which (similar to the illegal blood doping) increases the hematocrit (hemoglobin concentration), affects the (resting) cardiac output (HMV). Conversely, anemia (due to low hemoglobin concentration) leads to a higher cardiac output. But maybe you only want to know how to survive with 10% oxygen in the air you breathe. With the Trial and Error method, they should reach reasonably normal physiological blood gas levels; in any case, the arterial saturation at rest should never fall below 40%. If you walk up Mt. Everest at 8849 m altitude with no additional oxygen equipment, you will notice that the latter condition can actually be survived. But if you want to explore the moon or even Mars in a space suit, then it makes sense to choose a spacesuit with the lowest possible internal pressure, otherwise you will not be able to move in the spacesuit, but you still want to have normal blood gas levels. How high must this internal pressure be? After all, you certainly want to know if you can live without blood. The latter are just a few admittedly extreme examples for which this simulator may also be helpful. If you take care of ventilated patients, you probably know the reason why the arterial oxygen partial pressure paO2 increases slightly when the respiratory rate changes from 12 to 13. Of course, this simulator can also be used to simulate child breathing settings.
Note: The primary parameters set correspond to a physiological breathing pattern of an adult human under a mean air pressure in Vienna. The dead space VD (e.g., nose, throat, bronchial tree, [D stands for Deadspace]) is the volume that does not participate in the gas exchange. The oxygen extraction rate (ER) of 25% means that 75% of the oxygen in the idle state constantly circulate without being consumed! This is not a physiological luxury - why you think? The pre-set (right ⇒ left) shunt of 1.5% is the anatomical (sometimes also called physiological) shunt of the veins of Thebesii, bronchial veins and pleural veins. A pathological (functional) right ⇒ left shunt may be caused by intrapulmonary (e.g., ARDS) or extrapulmonary (e.g., by the so-called Eisenmenger's syndrome). The base excess (BE) is a parameter which is predominantly relevant in pathophysiology, but under extreme stress the BE is also important in physiology. Javascript in your browser has to be enabled!

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